Every year, the country uses more than 100,000 tons of plant protection chemicals; Over 23 million tons of domestic waste, more than 7 million tons of industrial solid waste, more than 630,000 tons of hazardous wastes, while waste and waste water treatment is limited.
These startling figures have been reported by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment at the national conference on environmental protection held in the morning of August 24 to look directly at the overall picture of the current state of the environment in Vietnam.
According to MONRE, our country’s environment is under great pressure from domestic socio-economic development, international trade flows and transboundary impacts. Every year, more than 2,000 projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports.
Notably, there are 283 industrial zones with more than 550,000m3 of wastewater per day; 615 industrial clusters, of which only about 5% have concentrated wastewater treatment systems. More than 500,000 production establishments, including many types of production of environmental pollution, backward production technology. Over 5,000 mining enterprises, construction materials; More than 4,500 craft villages. More than 13,500 daily medical facilities generate more than 47 tons of hazardous waste and 125,000 m3 of medical wastewater.
The country currently has 787 municipalities with 3,000,000 m3 of waste water per day / night but most have not been processed and are currently operating nearly 43 million motorcycles and over 2 million cars.
Every year, the country uses more than 100,000 tons of plant protection chemicals; Over 23 million tons of household waste, more than 7 million tons of industrial solid waste, more than 630,000 tons of hazardous waste.
There are 458 landfill sites, including 337 landfills are not hygienic; There are more than 100 small-scale incinerators, which are in danger of generating dioxin, furan.
The conversion of forest land, mineral exploitation, hydropower construction, exploitation of biodiversity resources has led to the narrowing of the area of natural ecosystems, the fragmentation of habitats, the decline of biodiversity learn.
MONRE estimates that the FDI sector currently plays a key role in Vietnam’s exports, with about 70% of Vietnam’s exports and 59% of imports. However, FDI tends to shift capital inflows into energy and resource-intensive, human and environmentally unfriendly sectors such as metallurgy, ship repair, textiles, footwear, mining and construction. Mining minerals not associated with deep processing, pulp production, chemical production, agricultural products processing …; It has not met the target of attracting high technology, source technology and technology transfer … Some FDI projects violate the law causing environmental pollution such as Vedan, Miwon, Formosa, smog pollution of the factory. Vinh Tan 2 Thermal Power Plant, Lee & Men Company …
The issue of climate change is also considered to be a faster, more complicated process than predicted, affecting many aspects of our environment. Environmental issues in the flow of the Mekong, Red River and transboundary rivers are increasingly complex. The construction of hydropower projects of several countries in the Mekong mainstream has a great impact on the Mekong Delta.
However, MONRE basically assesses that the land, water and air environment in our country is generally good. However, surface water sources in some places are polluted, especially in urban areas, around industrial parks and craft villages; The quality of seawater is partially contaminated in some areas such as coastal waters from Ha Tinh to Thua Thien Hue due to environmental incidents. At points, intersections, construction sites, construction areas, air pollution is showing signs of increasing, especially in large cities. Recession due to saline intrusion, erosion, desertification occur in some places, coastal areas; Some areas of untreated soil remain untreated, causing groundwater pollution. Vietnam is noted for its high biodiversity with many types of natural ecosystems, rich and endemic genetic resources. However, our country’s biodiversity is rapidly declining, the rate of species extinction is high.
In urban areas, environmental pollution is mainly caused by traffic pollution, air pollution, and surface water pollution in some areas of industrial concentration. In river basins, the passage through urban areas, especially in concentrated areas of industrial zones, has resulted in the pollution of nutrients, organic and microorganisms such as Nhue River flowing through Hanoi, The Saigon River flows through Binh Duong, Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai River flows through Ho Chi Minh City. Bien Hoa and Binh Duong, …
In rural areas, pollution is mainly occurring in craft villages, industrial spots intermingled with residential areas, production facilities, concentrated livestock farms, cultivation and exploitation activities. Mining, building materials in the vicinity, burial and burning of domestic waste, etc. Intensive cultivation with the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides Increasing CH4, H2S, NH3 gas polluting the environment, especially in agricultural areas using fertilizers and pesticides not in accordance with technical procedures such as Dong Anh (Hanoi), Hiep Hoa (Bac Giang), Yen Dinh (Thanh Hoa), Tay Nguyen (Duc Trong, Da Lat city). In addition, land degradation is occurring on a large scale in many rural areas of Viet Nam, such as leaching, erosion, desertification, acidification, salinization, drought, flooding, flash floods and Land erosion.
There are still many handicraft villages operating in high risk areas such as plastic, metal, lead battery, animal husbandry, paper production … Dust pollution is a common problem in pottery producing villages such as Bat Trang pottery and handicraft villages in Hanoi. Air pollution still occurs in plastic recycling villages such as Trung Van Plastic Recycling Village and Van Do Plastic Recycling Village (Nam Dinh). Pollution of odors, water pollution, organic matter pollution are concentrated in the villages of food processing, food processing and slaughter. Heavy metal pollution in surface water is occurring in metalworking villages and metal recycling villages such as Dai Bai Casting Village (Bac Ninh), Yen Binh Aluminum Recycling Village (Nam Dinh), village Lead processing plant Dong Mai, Van Lam (Hung Yen).
At mining sites, mining activities have been causing a lot of negative impacts on the surrounding environment such as soil and waste water discharge, discharge of dust, slag ore or water Disperse the environment; Changes in forest ecosystems, degradation and pollution of agricultural land. In addition, many organizations and individuals have not yet implemented or performed poor environmental rehabilitation and restoration obligations after mine closure, reducing land use efficiency, especially in areas where many mines are located. Mineral resources such as Tuyen Quang, Thai Nguyen, Quang Ninh.
According to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the situation of breaking the law on environmental protection is complicated. Many industrial parks, clusters and craft villages have not yet invested in the construction of environmental protection infrastructure or polluting the environment.
Many major environmental incidents, large-scale effects, especially the incident in the Central China Sea environment have occurred. The cause of the current state of the environment is that Vietnam is in a fast-growing, fast-paced stage of industrialization, urbanization, investment and development, resulting in a lot of pressure on the environment. The investor’s sense of responsibility for environmental protection, a number of branches, administrations, economic organizations and population communities is limited; The state of attaching importance to the immediate economic benefits, lightening the environmental protection work is quite popular.
The quality, effectiveness and efficiency of environmental management tools and measures are inadequate, not meeting the requirements and investment for environmental protection is very limited.